Reform of healthcare, social welfare and rescue services
The organisation of public healthcare, social welfare and rescue services will be reformed in Finland. The responsibility for organising these services was transferred from municipalities to wellbeing services counties 1.1.2023. The key objective of the reform is to improve the availability and quality of basic public services throughout Finland.
Wellbeing services counties
Under the reform, a total of 21 self-governing wellbeing services counties were established in Finland. In addition, the City of Helsinki is responsible for organising health, social and rescue services within its own area. The joint county authority for the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa is responsible for organising demanding specialised healthcare separately laid down by law.
Wellbeing services county of Southwest Finland: Aura, Kaarina, Kimitoön, Koski, Kustavi, Laitila, Lieto, Loimaa, Marttila, Masku, Mynämäki, Naantali, Nousiainen, Oripää, Paimio, Pargas, Pyhäranta, Pöytyä, Raisio, Rusko, Salo, Sauvo, Somero, Taivassalo, Turku, Uusikaupunki and Vehmaa
Wellbeing services county of Satakunta: Eura, Eurajoki, Harjavalta, Huittinen, Jämijärvi, Kankaanpää, Karvia, Kokemäki, Merikarvia, Nakkila, Pomarkku, Pori, Rauma, Siikainen, Säkylä and Ulvila
Wellbeing services county of Kanta-Häme: Forssa, Hattula, Hausjärvi, Humppila, Hämeenlinna, Janakkala, Jokioinen, Loppi, Riihimäki, Tammela and Ypäjä
Wellbeing services county of Pirkanmaa: Akaa, Hämeenkyrö, Ikaalinen, Juupajoki, Kangasala, Kihniö, Lempäälä, Mänttä-Vilppula, Nokia, Orivesi, Parkano, Pirkkala, Punkalaidun, Pälkäne, Ruovesi, Sastamala, Urjala, Valkeakoski, Vesilahti, Virrat and Ylöjärvi
Wellbeing services county of Päijät-Häme: Asikkala, Hartola, Heinola, Hollola, Iitti, Kärkölä, Lahti, Orimattila, Padasjoki and Sysmä
Wellbeing services county of Kymenlaakso: Hamina, Kotka, Kouvola, Miehikkälä, Pyhtää and Virolahti
Wellbeing services county of South Karelia: Imatra, Lappeenranta, Lemi, Luumäki, Parikkala, Rautjärvi, Ruokolahti, Savitaipale and Taipalsaari
Wellbeing services county of South Savo: Enonkoski, Hirvensalmi, Juva, Kangasniemi, Mikkeli, Mäntyharju, Pertunmaa, Pieksämäki, Puumala, Rantasalmi, Savonlinna and Sulkava
Wellbeing services county of North Savo: Iisalmi, Joroinen, Kaavi , Keitele, Kiuruvesi, Kuopio, Lapinlahti, Leppävirta, Pielavesi, Rautalammi, Rautavaara, Siilinjärvi, Sonkajärvi, Suonenjoki, Tervo, Tuusniemi, Varkaus, Vesanto and Vieremä
Wellbeing services county of North Karelia: Heinävesi, Ilomantsi, Joensuu, Juuka , Kitee, Kontiolahti, Lieksa, Liperi, Nurmes, Outokumpu, Polvijärvi, Rääkkylä, Tohmajärvi and Valtimo.
Wellbeing services county of Central Finland: Hankasalmi, Joutsa, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kannonkoski, Karstula, Keuruu, Kinnula, Kivijärvi, Konnevesi, Kyyjärvi, Laukaa, Luhanka, Multia, Muurame, Petäjävesi, Pihtipudas , Saarijärvi, Toivakka, Uurainen, Viitasaari and Äänekoski
Wellbeing services county of South Ostrobothnia: Alajärvi, Alavus, Evijärvi, Ilmajoki, Isojoki, Isokyrö, Karijoki, Kauhajoki, Kauhava, Kuortane, Kurikka, Lappajärvi, Lapua, Seinäjoki, Soini, Teuva, Vimpeli and Ähtäri
Wellbeing services county of Ostrobothnia: Kaskinen, Korsnäs, Kristinestad, Kronoby, Laihia, Larsmo, Malax, Korsholm, Närpes, Pedersöre, Jakobstad, Nykarleby, Vaasa and Vörå
Wellbeing services county of Central Ostrobothnia: Halsua, Kannus, Kaustinen, Kokkola, Lestijärvi, Perho, Toholammi and Veteli
Wellbeing services county of North Ostrobothnia: Alavieska, Haapajärvi, Haapavesi, Hailuoto, Ii, Kalajoki, Kempele, Kuusamo, Kärsämäki, Liminka, Lumijoki, Merijärvi, Muhos, Nivala, Oulainen, Oulu, Pudasjärvi, Pyhäjoki, Pyhäjärvi, Pyhäntä, Raahe, Reisjärvi, Sievi, Siikajoki, Siikalatva, Taivalkoski, Tyrnävä, Utajärvi, Vaala and Ylivieska
Wellbeing services county of Kainuu: Hyrynsalmi, Kajaani, Kuhmo, Paltamo, Puolanka, Ristijärvi, Sotkamo and Suomussalmi
Wellbeing services county of Lapland: Enontekiö, Inari, Kemi, Kemijärvi, Keminmaa, Kittilä, Kolari, Muonio, Pelkosenniemi, Pello, Posio, Ranua, Rovaniemi, Salla, Savukoski, Simo, Sodankylä, Tervola, Tornio, Utsjoki and Ylitornio
Wellbeing services county of East Uusimaa: Askola, Lapinjärvi, Loviisa, Myrskylä, Porvoo, Pukkila and Sipoo
Wellbeing services county of Central Uusimaa: Hyvinkää, Järvenpää, Nurmijärvi, Mäntsälä, Tuusula and Pornainen
Wellbeing services county of West Uusimaa: Espoo, Hanko, Ingå, Karkkila, Kauniainen, Kirkkonummi, Lohja, Raseborg, Siuntio and Vihti
Wellbeing services county of Vantaa and Kerava: Vantaa and Kerava
The highest decision-making power in each wellbeing services county will be exercised by a county council, whose members and deputy members will be elected in county elections. The first county elections will be held on 23 January 2022. The term of the first county council will start on 1 March 2022 and run until 31 May 2025. From 2025 onwards, county elections will be held every four years in conjunction with municipal elections, and the term of the county council will always start at the beginning of June.
Because the City of Helsinki is not a wellbeing services county and it does not belong to any of the counties, there will be no county elections in Helsinki. However, non-residents, i.e. people whose municipality of residence is not Helsinki, may vote in Helsinki during the advance voting period.
Responsibility for organising services
The responsibility for organising health, social and rescue services will be transferred from municipalities to wellbeing services counties from the beginning of 2023. Municipalities will remain responsible for promoting the health and wellbeing of their residents. The public sector will remain the organiser and primary provider of services. Private sector actors and the third sector will supplement public health and social services. Five collaborative areas for healthcare and social welfare will be created to secure specialised services. People will continue to be allowed to use health and social services across regional boundaries.